Deontology or Duty-based Ethics: Emmanuel Kant and Bhagavad Gita

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Kant’s Deontological/Duty-based Ethics: Pre-suppositions

  • Human beings are rational​.
  • They have free will.
  • Immoral actions are irrational.
  • Moral acts are guided by Categorical Imperatives and not be Hypothetical Imperatives.
  • Maxim 1: Universalisability Principle:

    Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law without contradiction.

    Maxim 2. Autonomy Principle:

    Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never merely as a means to an end, but always at the same time as an end.

    Maxim 3:

    Therefore, every rational being must so act as if he were through his maxim always a legislating member in the universal kingdom of ends.​

    Kant and Categorical Imperatives:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8bIys6JoEDw​

    Utilitarianism Crash Course:​
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=326&v=-a739VjqdSI

    Philosophy of Karma: Bhagavad Gita

    ​Karmanye Vadhikaraste, ​
    Ma Phaleshou Kadachana. ​
    Ma Karma Phala Hetur ​
    Bhurmatey Sangostva Akarmani. ​

    CHATUR VARNYAM MAYAA SRISHTAM ​
    GUNA KARMA VIBHAGASHAHA ​
    TASYA KARTARAM API MAAM ​
    VIDDHI AKARTARAM AVYAYAM. ​​

    Therefore, arise, thou son of Kunti! ​
    Brace Thine arm for conflict, ​
    nerve thy heart to meet ​
    As things alike to thee – pleasure or pain, ​
    Profit or ruin, victory or defeat; ​
    So minded, gird thee to the fight; ​
    for so Thou shalt not sin. ​​​

    The Bhagavadgita, Gita Press, Gorakhpur.

    Bhagavad Gita and Kant:

    • Human beings are rational​
    • They have free will​
    • Means are the determiners of morality of an action​​
    • Gita: Karma and free will